This course examines the history of the Middle East between c1700 and the beginning of the First World War. It examines the nature of the Ottoman Empire from the battle of Vienna to the fateful decision to side with Germany in 1914. We consider European imperial interest in the region during the C18 and C19. We start by looking at the changing definition and nature of the "Middle East" over this period. Scholarly debates over the relationship between Europe and the region, including the question of "Orientalism", will be covered. Our sessions then chart the decline of the Ottoman Empire, Egypt's increasingly detached status, attempts at reform and the increasing strategic and economic interests and influences of European imperial powers in the region.