This course examines the reigns of the English kings from1216 to 1485. The 13th century saw cultural advances under Henry III and the castle building of Edward I. The 14th century saw the failure of the reign of Edward II and the beginning of the Hundred Years War under Edward III. The deposition and subequent murder of Richard II in 1399 would lead to the bloody conflict of the Wars of the Roses. This culminated in the end of the Plantagenet rule following the defeat of Richard III at Bosworth Field in 1485. This course examines the personalities and policies of the kings and investigates the social and religious background to their reigns in the High Middle Ages.